To make pdf files that print reliably the way you want them to it is important to set up Acrobat correctly. The following screen shots are taken from Acrobat V8, if you have a previous version you may have slightly different options.
The general options contain settings that determine general file handling. The PDF version is relevant if you want to take advantage of newer features in pdf files. Making files Acrobat 4 (PDF 1.5) compatible means that all transparency is flattened at pdf creation. The default page size is used when there is no size information in the file.
The image handling options have a major influence on quality and size of the file. You can reduce the resolution of pictures (downsample) to an apropriate level and you can use different compression levels, depending on the purpose.
Fonts should always be embedded, especially if the file is produced for print. Even if you assume that your recipient does have similar fonts to you, they might be a different version and display or print differently. Subsetting means that only characters used are embedded, which makes last minute edits on the pdf impossible, but retains file integrity. As for the compression we recommend to stick to ZIP compression, which - unlike jpeg - does not degrade picture quality.
The safe option here is most likely to turn all colour management off, unless you have discussed this with your printer and agreed on a policy.
Advanced & Standards
In the advanced options you can leave most the defaults unless otherwise discussed. Acrobat can check for different standards such as PDF-X.